Peak Orthopedics & Spine
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Intraoperative Monitoring

This article provides an overview of the various neurophysiological monitoring techniques used intraoperatively. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring has been utilized in attempts to minimize neurological morbidity from operative manipulations. The goal of such monitoring is to identify changes in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve function prior to irreversible damage. Intraoperative monitoring also has been effective in localizing anatomical structures, including peripheral nerves and sensorimotor cortex, which helps guide the surgeon during dissection. Evoked potential monitoring includes somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Electromyography (EMG) also is used extensively during operative cases. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) provides data for analysis in SSEP, BAEP, and VEP. Scalp EEG also can be used to monitor cerebral function during carotid or other vascular surgery. In addition, EEG recorded directly from the pial surface, or electrocorticography (ECoG), is used to help determine resection margins for epilepsy surgery, and to monitor for seizures during electrical stimulation of the brain carried out while mapping cortical function. Electrophysiological monitoring in the operative milieu poses several specific challenges. These include (1) presence of electromagnetic interference, and (2) use of anesthetic agents that can alter recordings.

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Map 14100 E. Arapahoe Road Suite #370
Centennial, CO 80112
Phone: 303.699.PEAK (7325) |
Fax: 303.699.5486
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Lone Tree, CO 80124

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